This article is about an American army in theand of .
The II Corps was a corps of U.S. Army and the first organic formation American army to enter in combat duringon the European theater and Africa.
The U.S. Army II Corps went into action for the first time on theduring the First World War, in the Second of Somme, fighting employed by the 3rd British Army, alongside the departments British, New Zealand and Australian soldiers Americans distinguished themselves in the month of August 1918 march, after fierce fighting, of Arras and Bapaume, forcing the to fall back on the latest positions of the Hindenburg Line.
In the autumn of 1942, the II Corps, commanded by Lieutenant General 1st Armored Division and the 1st and 34th U.S. Infantry Division that pushed quickly forward detachments advanced went up in Tunisia before being rejected by the counterattack of the German forces hastily landed at Tunis and Bizerte. The command of II Corps did not conduct directly to these operations and was first activated only later to take control of the central-southern Tunisian front.landed at Oranin Algeria, as part of the , the Allied landing in the great North Africa French. Reporting to the body were mainly the
Since January 1943, Generalfaced with the violent Italian-German divisions counter-offensive that culminated in a series of serious defeats for the U.S. II Corps. Too badly dispersed and deployed the II Corps was unable to repel the attacks and on the other hand, poorly informed of the situation on the ground and seriously underestimating the enemy was beating in Sidi Bou Zid and Kasserine. Only the intervention of major British and French reinforcements prevented complete defeat of the II Corps and overt serious organizational defects and significant strategic and tactical inexperience; suffered the same violent criticism because of its remoteness from the first line of his ineptitude and His lack of control of the situation, being eventually replaced by the energy General George Smith .
Under the command of the new General, U.S. II Corps had undoubted progress: the discipline was strengthened, lifted morale after a series of humiliating defeats; some officers were replaced by men most capable and most combative. Despite these improvements and great energyshowed U.S.forces are still weaknesses and uncertainties offensive action (such as during the ) while the defense gave strong evidence of persistence and stamina more frustrating enemy attacks.
In the month of April, the situation on the Tunisian front turned decisively in favor of the Allies and the command of the, General Alexander decided to change the deployment of troops for the final attack at the head of the bridge between Italy and Germany. The II Corps effected for this purpose a successful motion transfer taking on the left of the Allied front ready to advance on Bizerte, after it had completed this maneuver, General was called back to Algiers to organize the new U.S. 7th Army in view of the planned invasion of Sicily, and the command of II Corps passed to Lieutenant General Omar Bradley, who directed the final stages of the battle.
The II Corps, reinforced also by the excellent 9th Infantry Division, distinguished himself in the last battles of the Tunisian campaign General Bradley demonstrated tactical skill and the troops advanced with momentum Mateur and Bizerte, which was reached on 7 May, 1943. The May 13 was the last enemy resistance, and routed the allied army successfully completed the North African campaign.
After the victory in Tunisia, the II Corps, always guided by General Bradley and framed in the new 7th Army of General Patton, it participated in the landing in Sicily, using the 1st, the 3rd , the 45th Infantry Division Infantry and the 2nd Armored Division (in later also reinforced by the 9th Infantry Division). The campaign proved a great success for the American forces, unlike the British units, they advanced rapidly inland. The II Corps led the march in western Sicily and on July 22 the armored formations of the 2nd Armored and the 3rd Infantry Division infantry came to Palermo. On August 17, the U.S. forces also entered for the first Messina finished the campaign, but without being able to prevent the orderly evacuation of the surviving German-.
The II Corps, after a brief period of rest, returned to action in the autumn of 1943 in the Italian peninsula, after the landing of Salerno and the initial Allied advance until the. The body, now commanded by Major General after his return to Britain of Bradley in view of the , took command of the 34th and 36th Infantry Division and had to work, employed by the 5th Army General , in fierce fighting against the strong German defenses undergoing some bloody chess in his attempts to break through the Fast and the Garigliano in the winter of 1943-44.
Only in May 1944, the German defenses south of Rome were overcome, mainly thanks to the departments in France and Poland, as well as the II Corps, now the head of the 85th and 88th Infantry Division, it advanced on the Tyrrhenian coast to join with U.S. forces in Anzio bridgehead. It was the 88th Division to enter the first 4 June in the Italian capital. After a phase of rapid advance, Allied forces were again blocked on theand the II Corps (again led by General Keyes) took part in the exhausting battle with the divisions assigned to the command of the 5th Army (34th, 88th and 91th Infantry Division ).
In April 1945, finally heterogeneous allied forces in Italy they launched the great offensive end to stay ahead of thein thePeninsula (Army Group C of the General ), the II Corps was under the command of the 5th Army, passed to command of General Lucian K. Truscott after the promotion of Clark, deployed on the right side in contact with the . The operation Grapeshot (which began on April 9 ), after some resistance the German original, developed rapidly and with complete success, the II Corps of General Keyes, consisting of the 88th, 34th, 91st Infantry Division, reinforced by the South Africa 6th Armored Division, advanced to Bologna, then over the Po river, going to the Alps.
On May 3, 1945, the 88th Infantry Division of the II Corps arrived in Sterzing making contact with the 3rd Infantry Division U.S., belonging to the 7th Army’s 6th Army Group of General Jacob Devers. Ended in this way the war effort of the U.S. II Corps, characterized by some unfortunate initial tests and a series of expensive and fought success against an enemy able and decided, in a war front is particularly difficult for the allied troops.
The II Corps, U.S. Army, was inactivated after the end of the war in Austria on 10 October, 1945.