discharge tubes or simply torpedo tubes (abbreviated TR) serve aboard warship s of different types of storage and discharge or Firing of torpedo s (this is actually wrong, “fire” to speak of, because usually no pyrotechnic propellant is used).
With the introduction of torpedo as a weapon in the war marines came after 1860 also as a torpedo armament of warships on. They were initially referred to as Torpedolancierrohr. Their use was first to torpedo boats and n Later torpedo launchers pipes were installed on almost all warship types (destroyers, cruisers of all types, torpedo boats and submarine s), even some e wore torpedo tubes. First on surface vessels, the torpedo tubes were installed rigidly, so that had to be targeted to the entire ship. Some of them have even installed below the water line. Later they went on to surface vessels (eg Summarize as destroyers and cruisers) over to the torpedo tubes pivoting multiple sets (two, three or more tubes) on the upper deck.
The diameter of the torpedo tubes emissions varies depending on Torpedoart and the measurement system used in the country of origin. Moreover, the sizes of the torpedo has been increased more and more in the course of time. While in the German Imperial Navy torpedo tubes of 35 cm, 45 cm, 50 cm and 60 cm were used, the Britishused tubes with the imperial dimensions 15 inches (= 38.1 cm), 18 inch (= 45.7 cm ) and 21 inch (= 53.3 cm). The latter prevailed as a de facto standard, so also in 1927 joined the Imperial Navy, and this measure took over and after all torpedoes. The only exception was for a long time, the Imperial Japanese Navy, which pipes of 24 inch (= 61.0 cm) preferred.
From the torpedo tubes and missile torpedoes emissions and correspondingly shapedn can be ejected. Besides the usual 53.3 cm found in various submarine classes and 65-cm tubes use can also be used by the nuclear-tipped torpedoes and anti-ship missiles.
On submarines, the torpedo launchers tubes are usually rigidly mounted in the bow and the stern into the hull and closed in the rest position by flaps. Before the torpedo tubes such must first be flooded.
discharge tubes are used sometimes for the discharge of frogmen n by submerged submarines; also they are used as storage space for waste and refrigerated storage for B. supplies or even used beer.
For discharging the torpedoes on surface vessels is still mostly used compressed air on small torpedo boats and pyrotechnic charges. Dampfschiffära is also used in the steam. Since the inner diameter of the torpedo is slightly wider than the outside diameter of the torpedo, the torpedo can be greatly lubricated during insertion into the tube, so that air does not escape through the gap. The output of compressed air technology for submarines, however unfavorable, because it a treacherous air surge may occur on the surface.
Therefore discharge method was in submarines since theincreasingly used to resolve this problem. So torpedo tubes were developed, which is again derived only at the mouth tightly sealed and the pressure in the boat interior (it took very little air out), or compressed air powered a piston behind the on (the piston is locked at the end of its travel path, the tube and held the air is returned). All of these methods share the disadvantage that the torpedo boat, the internal pressure increases, which can be uncomfortable for the crew, and the boat can get out of trim after the shot through the air-filled tube.
Until the end of, it happened that after the torpedo shot the bow of the submarine broke through the water’s surface and thus betrayed the position of the boat.
To avoid this, is used for As the German Navy submarines on their so-called “drain pipes” from which the torpedoes were not expelled, but simply the torpedo was launched in the pipe and its own engine, “expired”. These pipes had to be more than the torpedo, so that water could flow in the drainage from the front. The torpedoes are guided on rails in the interior of the tube. In this method, the torpedo has of course only slowly build up his speed and high speed caused the “subject” running propeller cavitation sgeräusche treacherous. Particularly interesting for small boats, these show a weight and space savings, because the air conditioning was accounted for ejection.
Today, in general is a technique for use in which the actual emission takes place by water, which is pressed behind the torpedo, the pressurized water is in this case a hydraulic cylinder, or in particular, the pressurized air pressure chambers produces (pressurized water discharge). The compressed air passes is neither outside nor inside the boat, the procedure is virtually silent. Except for the much larger and heavier technical equipment of the pipe, the pressure water discharge has no disadvantages. Because with this technique the torpedo tube is filled with water after the shot, it will become easier to keep the trim of the boat.